Automatic Mapping Among Lexico-Grammatical Annotation Models (AMALGAM)


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

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The Brown Corpus Tag-set

Listed alphabetically below are the complete set of tags used in the Brown corpus. Each tag has examples of the tokens that were annotated with that tag. The examples are taken directly from the Brown corpus.

Unlike some of the other tag-sets handled by the AMALGAM tagger Brown uses `combined tags' for word such as won't (MD*) and I'd (PPSS+HVD). Combined tags come in only these two forms. Either negated words have an asterisk appended after their tag or the plus symbol separates the tags for the different tokens that make up the complete combined word. This makes it a trivial task to split combined tags. AMALGAM's version of the Brown tagger annotates with combined tags only if the tokeniser is switched off. This is done on the e-mail server by appending "notoken" to the start of the subject line of the e-mail message. If the tokeniser is used the combined words are split into their constituent parts and the tags applied to each part. So, won't (MD*) becomes will (MD) plus n't (*) and I'd (PPSS+HVD) becomes I (PPSS) plus 'd (HVD).

If the list of examples ends with an ellipsis marker then the tag category can be assumed to be an open class.

Further information on the Brown corpus can be found at the International Computer Archive of Modern English (ICAME) corpus collection.

Further reading:

Greene, B.B. & G.M. Rubin. 1981. Automatic grammatical tagging of English. Providence, R.I.: Department of Linguistics, Brown University.

Tag
Description
Examples
(
opening parenthesis (
)
closing parenthesis )
*
negator not n't
,
comma ,
--
dash --
.
sentence terminator . ? ; ! :
:
colon :
ABL
determiner/pronoun, pre-qualifier quite such rather
ABN
determiner/pronoun, pre-quantifier all half many nary
ABX
determiner/pronoun, double conjunction or pre-quantifier both
AP
determiner/pronoun, post-determiner many other next more last former little several enough most least only very few fewer past same Last latter less single plenty 'nough lesser certain various manye next-to-last particular final previous present nuf
AP$
determiner/pronoun, post-determiner, genitive other's
AP+AP
determiner/pronoun, post-determiner, hyphenated pair many-much
AT
article the an no a every th' ever' ye
BE
verb "to be", infinitive or imperative be
BED
verb "to be", past tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural were
BED*
verb "to be", past tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural, negated weren't
BEDZ
verb "to be", past tense, 1st and 3rd person singular was
BEDZ*
verb "to be", past tense, 1st and 3rd person singular, negated wasn't
BEG
verb "to be", present participle or gerund being
BEM
verb "to be", present tense, 1st person singular am
BEM*
verb "to be", present tense, 1st person singular, negated ain't
BEN
verb "to be", past participle been
BER
verb "to be", present tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural are art
BER*
verb "to be", present tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural, negated aren't ain't
BEZ
verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular is
BEZ*
verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular, negated isn't ain't
CC
conjunction, coordinating and or but plus & either neither nor yet 'n' and/or minus an'
CD
numeral, cardinal two one 1 four 2 1913 71 74 637 1937 8 five three million 87-31 29-5 seven 1,119 fifty-three 7.5 billion hundred 125,000 1,700 60 100 six ...
CD$
numeral, cardinal, genitive 1960's 1961's .404's
CS
conjunction, subordinating that as after whether before while like because if since for than altho until so unless though providing once lest s'posin' till whereas whereupon supposing tho' albeit then so's 'fore
DO
verb "to do", uninflected present tense, infinitive or imperative do dost
DO*
verb "to do", uninflected present tense or imperative, negated don't
DO+PPSS
verb "to do", past or present tense + pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular d'you
DOD
verb "to do", past tense did done
DOD*
verb "to do", past tense, negated didn't
DOZ
verb "to do", present tense, 3rd person singular does
DOZ*
verb "to do", present tense, 3rd person singular, negated doesn't don't
DT
determiner/pronoun, singular this each another that 'nother
DT$
determiner/pronoun, singular, genitive another's
DT+BEZ
determiner/pronoun + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular that's
DT+MD
determiner/pronoun + modal auxillary that'll this'll
DTI
determiner/pronoun, singular or plural any some
DTS
determiner/pronoun, plural these those them
DTS+BEZ
pronoun, plural + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular them's
DTX
determiner, pronoun or double conjunction neither either one
EX
existential there there
EX+BEZ
existential there + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular there's
EX+HVD
existential there + verb "to have", past tense there'd
EX+HVZ
existential there + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular there's
EX+MD
existential there + modal auxillary there'll there'd
FW-*
foreign word: negator pas non ne
FW-AT
foreign word: article la le el un die der ein keine eine das las les Il
FW-AT+NN
foreign word: article + noun, singular, common l'orchestre l'identite l'arcade l'ange l'assistance l'activite L'Universite l'independance L'Union L'Unita l'osservatore
FW-AT+NP
foreign word: article + noun, singular, proper L'Astree L'Imperiale
FW-BE
foreign word: verb "to be", infinitive or imperative sit
FW-BER
foreign word: verb "to be", present tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural sind sunt etes
FW-BEZ
foreign word: verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular ist est
FW-CC
foreign word: conjunction, coordinating et ma mais und aber och nec y
FW-CD
foreign word: numeral, cardinal une cinq deux sieben unam zwei
FW-CS
foreign word: conjunction, subordinating bevor quam ma
FW-DT
foreign word: determiner/pronoun, singular hoc
FW-DT+BEZ
foreign word: determiner + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular c'est
FW-DTS
foreign word: determiner/pronoun, plural haec
FW-HV
foreign word: verb "to have", present tense, not 3rd person singular habe
FW-IN
foreign word: preposition ad de en a par con dans ex von auf super post sine sur sub avec per inter sans pour pendant in di
FW-IN+AT
foreign word: preposition + article della des du aux zur d'un del dell'
FW-IN+NN
foreign word: preposition + noun, singular, common d'etat d'hotel d'argent d'identite d'art
FW-IN+NP
foreign word: preposition + noun, singular, proper d'Yquem d'Eiffel
FW-JJ
foreign word: adjective avant Espagnol sinfonica Siciliana Philharmonique grand publique haute noire bouffe Douce meme humaine bel serieuses royaux anticus presto Sovietskaya Bayerische comique schwarzen ...
FW-JJR
foreign word: adjective, comparative fortiori
FW-JJT
foreign word: adjective, superlative optimo
FW-NN
foreign word: noun, singular, common ballet esprit ersatz mano chatte goutte sang Fledermaus oud def kolkhoz roi troika canto boite blutwurst carne muzyka bonheur monde piece force ...
FW-NN$
foreign word: noun, singular, common, genitive corporis intellectus arte's dei aeternitatis senioritatis curiae patronne's chambre's
FW-NNS
foreign word: noun, plural, common al culpas vopos boites haflis kolkhozes augen tyrannis alpha-beta-gammas metis banditos rata phis negociants crus Einsatzkommandos kamikaze wohaws sabinas zorrillas palazzi engages coureurs corroborees yori Ubermenschen ...
FW-NP
foreign word: noun, singular, proper Karshilama Dieu Rundfunk Afrique Espanol Afrika Spagna Gott Carthago deus
FW-NPS
foreign word: noun, plural, proper Svenskarna Atlantes Dieux
FW-NR
foreign word: noun, singular, adverbial heute morgen aujourd'hui hoy
FW-OD
foreign word: numeral, ordinal 18e 17e quintus
FW-PN
foreign word: pronoun, nominal hoc
FW-PP$
foreign word: determiner, possessive mea mon deras vos
FW-PPL
foreign word: pronoun, singular, reflexive se
FW-PPL+VBZ
foreign word: pronoun, singular, reflexive + verb, present tense, 3rd person singular s'excuse s'accuse
FW-PPO
pronoun, personal, accusative lui me moi mi
FW-PPO+IN
foreign word: pronoun, personal, accusative + preposition mecum tecum
FW-PPS
foreign word: pronoun, personal, nominative, 3rd person singular il
FW-PPSS
foreign word: pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular ich vous sie je
FW-PPSS+HV
foreign word: pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to have", present tense, not 3rd person singular j'ai
FW-QL
foreign word: qualifier minus
FW-RB
foreign word: adverb bas assai deja um wiederum cito velociter vielleicht simpliciter non zu domi nuper sic forsan olim oui semper tout despues hors
FW-RB+CC
foreign word: adverb + conjunction, coordinating forisque
FW-TO+VB
foreign word: infinitival to + verb, infinitive d'entretenir
FW-UH
foreign word: interjection sayonara bien adieu arigato bonjour adios bueno tchalo ciao o
FW-VB
foreign word: verb, present tense, not 3rd person singular, imperative or infinitive nolo contendere vive fermate faciunt esse vade noli tangere dites duces meminisse iuvabit gosaimasu voulez habla ksu'u'peli'afo lacheln miuchi say allons strafe portant
FW-VBD
foreign word: verb, past tense stabat peccavi audivi
FW-VBG
foreign word: verb, present participle or gerund nolens volens appellant seq. obliterans servanda dicendi delenda
FW-VBN
foreign word: verb, past participle vue verstrichen rasa verboten engages
FW-VBZ
foreign word: verb, present tense, 3rd person singular gouverne sinkt sigue diapiace
FW-WDT
foreign word: WH-determiner quo qua quod que quok
FW-WPO
foreign word: WH-pronoun, accusative quibusdam
FW-WPS
foreign word: WH-pronoun, nominative qui
HV
verb "to have", uninflected present tense, infinitive or imperative have hast
HV*
verb "to have", uninflected present tense or imperative, negated haven't ain't
HV+TO
verb "to have", uninflected present tense + infinitival to hafta
HVD
verb "to have", past tense had
HVD*
verb "to have", past tense, negated hadn't
HVG
verb "to have", present participle or gerund having
HVN
verb "to have", past participle had
HVZ
verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular has hath
HVZ*
verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular, negated hasn't ain't
IN
preposition of in for by considering to on among at through with under into regarding than since despite according per before toward against as after during including between without except upon out over ...
IN+IN
preposition, hyphenated pair f'ovuh
IN+PPO
preposition + pronoun, personal, accusative t'hi-im
JJ
adjective recent over-all possible hard-fought favorable hard meager fit such widespread outmoded inadequate ambiguous grand clerical effective orderly federal foster general proportionate ...
JJ$
adjective, genitive Great's
JJ+JJ
adjective, hyphenated pair big-large long-far
JJR
adjective, comparative greater older further earlier later freer franker wider better deeper firmer tougher faster higher bigger worse younger lighter nicer slower happier frothier Greater newer Elder ...
JJR+CS
adjective + conjunction, coordinating lighter'n
JJS
adjective, semantically superlative top chief principal northernmost master key head main tops utmost innermost foremost uppermost paramount topmost
JJT
adjective, superlative best largest coolest calmest latest greatest earliest simplest strongest newest fiercest unhappiest worst youngest worthiest fastest hottest fittest lowest finest smallest staunchest ...
MD
modal auxillary should may might will would must can could shall ought need wilt
MD*
modal auxillary, negated cannot couldn't wouldn't can't won't shouldn't shan't mustn't musn't
MD+HV
modal auxillary + verb "to have", uninflected form shouldda musta coulda must've woulda could've
MD+PPSS
modal auxillary + pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular willya
MD+TO
modal auxillary + infinitival to oughta
NN
noun, singular, common failure burden court fire appointment awarding compensation Mayor interim committee fact effect airport management surveillance jail doctor intern extern night weekend duty legislation Tax Office ...
NN$
noun, singular, common, genitive season's world's player's night's chapter's golf's football's baseball's club's U.'s coach's bride's bridegroom's board's county's firm's company's superintendent's mob's Navy's ...
NN+BEZ
noun, singular, common + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular water's camera's sky's kid's Pa's heat's throat's father's money's undersecretary's granite's level's wife's fat's Knife's fire's name's hell's leg's sun's roulette's cane's guy's kind's baseball's ...
NN+HVD
noun, singular, common + verb "to have", past tense Pa'd
NN+HVZ
noun, singular, common + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular guy's Knife's boat's summer's rain's company's
NN+IN
noun, singular, common + preposition buncha
NN+MD
noun, singular, common + modal auxillary cowhand'd sun'll
NN+NN
noun, singular, common, hyphenated pair stomach-belly
NNS
noun, plural, common irregularities presentments thanks reports voters laws legislators years areas adjustments chambers $100 bonds courts sales details raises sessions members congressmen votes polls calls ...
NNS$
noun, plural, common, genitive taxpayers' children's members' States' women's cutters' motorists' steelmakers' hours' Nations' lawyers' prisoners' architects' tourists' Employers' secretaries' Rogues' ...
NNS+MD
noun, plural, common + modal auxillary duds'd oystchers'll
NP
noun, singular, proper Fulton Atlanta September-October Durwood Pye Ivan Allen Jr. Jan. Alpharetta Grady William B. Hartsfield Pearl Williams Aug. Berry J. M. Cheshire Griffin Opelika Ala. E. Pelham Snodgrass ...
NP$
noun, singular, proper, genitive Green's Landis' Smith's Carreon's Allison's Boston's Spahn's Willie's Mickey's Milwaukee's Mays' Howsam's Mantle's Shaw's Wagner's Rickey's Shea's Palmer's Arnold's Broglio's ...
NP+BEZ
noun, singular, proper + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular W.'s Ike's Mack's Jack's Kate's Katharine's Black's Arthur's Seaton's Buckhorn's Breed's Penny's Rob's Kitty's Blackwell's Myra's Wally's Lucille's Springfield's Arlene's
NP+HVZ
noun, singular, proper + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular Bill's Guardino's Celie's Skolman's Crosson's Tim's Wally's
NP+MD
noun, singular, proper + modal auxillary Gyp'll John'll
NPS
noun, plural, proper Chases Aderholds Chapelles Armisteads Lockies Carbones French Marskmen Toppers Franciscans Romans Cadillacs Masons Blacks Catholics British Dixiecrats Mississippians Congresses ...
NPS$
noun, plural, proper, genitive Republicans' Orioles' Birds' Yanks' Redbirds' Bucs' Yankees' Stevenses' Geraghtys' Burkes' Wackers' Achaeans' Dresbachs' Russians' Democrats' Gershwins' Adventists' Negroes' Catholics' ...
NR
noun, singular, adverbial Friday home Wednesday Tuesday Monday Sunday Thursday yesterday tomorrow tonight West East Saturday west left east downtown north northeast southeast northwest North South right ...
NR$
noun, singular, adverbial, genitive Saturday's Monday's yesterday's tonight's tomorrow's Sunday's Wednesday's Friday's today's Tuesday's West's Today's South's
NR+MD
noun, singular, adverbial + modal auxillary today'll
NRS
noun, plural, adverbial Sundays Mondays Saturdays Wednesdays Souths Fridays
OD
numeral, ordinal first 13th third nineteenth 2d 61st second sixth eighth ninth twenty-first eleventh 50th eighteenth- Thirty-ninth 72nd 1/20th twentieth mid-19th thousandth 350th sixteenth 701st ...
PN
pronoun, nominal none something everything one anyone nothing nobody everybody everyone anybody anything someone no-one nothin
PN$
pronoun, nominal, genitive one's someone's anybody's nobody's everybody's anyone's everyone's
PN+BEZ
pronoun, nominal + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular nothing's everything's somebody's nobody's someone's
PN+HVD
pronoun, nominal + verb "to have", past tense nobody'd
PN+HVZ
pronoun, nominal + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular nobody's somebody's one's
PN+MD
pronoun, nominal + modal auxillary someone'll somebody'll anybody'd
PP$
determiner, possessive our its his their my your her out thy mine thine
PP$$
pronoun, possessive ours mine his hers theirs yours
PPL
pronoun, singular, reflexive itself himself myself yourself herself oneself ownself
PPLS
pronoun, plural, reflexive themselves ourselves yourselves
PPO
pronoun, personal, accusative them it him me us you 'em her thee we'uns
PPS
pronoun, personal, nominative, 3rd person singular it he she thee
PPS+BEZ
pronoun, personal, nominative, 3rd person singular + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular it's he's she's
PPS+HVD
pronoun, personal, nominative, 3rd person singular + verb "to have", past tense she'd he'd it'd
PPS+HVZ
pronoun, personal, nominative, 3rd person singular + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular it's he's she's
PPS+MD
pronoun, personal, nominative, 3rd person singular + modal auxillary he'll she'll it'll he'd it'd she'd
PPSS
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular they we I you ye thou you'uns
PPSS+BEM
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to be", present tense, 1st person singular I'm Ahm
PPSS+BER
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to be", present tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural we're you're they're
PPSS+BEZ
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular you's
PPSS+BEZ*
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular, negated 'tain't
PPSS+HV
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to have", uninflected present tense I've we've they've you've
PPSS+HVD
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to have", past tense I'd you'd we'd they'd
PPSS+MD
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + modal auxillary you'll we'll I'll we'd I'd they'll they'd you'd
PPSS+VB
pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular + verb "to verb", uninflected present tense y'know
QL
qualifier, pre well less very most so real as highly fundamentally even how much remarkably somewhat more completely too thus ill deeply little overly halfway almost impossibly far severly such ...
QLP
qualifier, post indeed enough still 'nuff
RB
adverb only often generally also nevertheless upon together back newly no likely meanwhile near then heavily there apparently yet outright fully aside consistently specifically formally ever just ...
RB$
adverb, genitive else's
RB+BEZ
adverb + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular here's there's
RB+CS
adverb + conjunction, coordinating well's soon's
RBR
adverb, comparative further earlier better later higher tougher more harder longer sooner less faster easier louder farther oftener nearer cheaper slower tighter lower worse heavier quicker ...
RBR+CS
adverb, comparative + conjunction, coordinating more'n
RBT
adverb, superlative most best highest uppermost nearest brightest hardest fastest deepest farthest loudest ...
RN
adverb, nominal here afar then
RP
adverb, particle up out off down over on in about through across after
RP+IN
adverb, particle + preposition out'n outta
TO
infinitival to to t'
TO+VB
infinitival to + verb, infinitive t'jawn t'lah
UH
interjection Hurrah bang whee hmpf ah goodbye oops oh-the-pain-of-it ha crunch say oh why see well hello lo alas tarantara rum-tum-tum gosh hell keerist Jesus Keeeerist boy c'mon 'mon goddamn bah hoo-pig damn ...
VB
verb, base: uninflected present, imperative or infinitive investigate find act follow inure achieve reduce take remedy re-set distribute realize disable feel receive continue place protect eliminate elaborate work permit run enter force ...
VB+AT
verb, base: uninflected present or infinitive + article wanna
VB+IN
verb, base: uninflected present, imperative or infinitive + preposition lookit
VB+JJ
verb, base: uninflected present, imperative or infinitive + adjective die-dead
VB+PPO
verb, uninflected present tense + pronoun, personal, accusative let's lemme gimme
VB+RP
verb, imperative + adverbial particle g'ahn c'mon
VB+TO
verb, base: uninflected present, imperative or infinitive + infinitival to wanta wanna
VB+VB
verb, base: uninflected present, imperative or infinitive; hypenated pair say-speak
VBD
verb, past tense said produced took recommended commented urged found added praised charged listed became announced brought attended wanted voted defeated received got stood shot scheduled feared promised made ...
VBG
verb, present participle or gerund modernizing improving purchasing Purchasing lacking enabling pricing keeping getting picking entering voting warning making strengthening setting neighboring attending participating moving ...
VBG+TO
verb, present participle + infinitival to gonna
VBN
verb, past participle conducted charged won received studied revised operated accepted combined experienced recommended effected granted seen protected adopted retarded notarized selected composed gotten printed ...
VBN+TO
verb, past participle + infinitival to gotta
VBZ
verb, present tense, 3rd person singular deserves believes receives takes goes expires says opposes starts permits expects thinks faces votes teaches holds calls fears spends collects backs eliminates sets flies gives seeks reads ...
WDT
WH-determiner which what whatever whichever whichever-the-hell
WDT+BER
WH-determiner + verb "to be", present tense, 2nd person singular or all persons plural what're
WDT+BER+PP
WH-determiner + verb "to be", present, 2nd person singular or all persons plural + pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular whaddya
WDT+BEZ
WH-determiner + verb "to be", present tense, 3rd person singular what's
WDT+DO+PPS
WH-determiner + verb "to do", uninflected present tense + pronoun, personal, nominative, not 3rd person singular whaddya
WDT+DOD
WH-determiner + verb "to do", past tense what'd
WDT+HVZ
WH-determiner + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular what's
WP$
WH-pronoun, genitive whose whosever
WPO
WH-pronoun, accusative whom that who
WPS
WH-pronoun, nominative that who whoever whosoever what whatsoever
WPS+BEZ
WH-pronoun, nominative + verb "to be", present, 3rd person singular that's who's
WPS+HVD
WH-pronoun, nominative + verb "to have", past tense who'd
WPS+HVZ
WH-pronoun, nominative + verb "to have", present tense, 3rd person singular who's that's
WPS+MD
WH-pronoun, nominative + modal auxillary who'll that'd who'd that'll
WQL
WH-qualifier however how
WRB
WH-adverb however when where why whereby wherever how whenever whereon wherein wherewith wheare wherefore whereof howsabout
WRB+BER
WH-adverb + verb "to be", present, 2nd person singular or all persons plural where're
WRB+BEZ
WH-adverb + verb "to be", present, 3rd person singular how's where's
WRB+DO
WH-adverb + verb "to do", present, not 3rd person singular howda
WRB+DOD
WH-adverb + verb "to do", past tense where'd how'd
WRB+DOD*
WH-adverb + verb "to do", past tense, negated whyn't
WRB+DOZ
WH-adverb + verb "to do", present tense, 3rd person singular how's
WRB+IN
WH-adverb + preposition why'n
WRB+MD
WH-adverb + modal auxillary where'd


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

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