Automatic Mapping Among Lexico-Grammatical Annotation Models (AMALGAM)


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

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The Polytechnic of Wales (POW) Corpus Tag-set

Listed alphabetically below are the terminal tags used in the POW Corpus Tag-set. Each tag has examples taken directly from the corpus of the tokens that were annotated with that tag. If the list of examples ends with an ellipsis marker then the tag category can be assumed to be an open class.

The POW corpus contains no punctuation at all as it is based on transcriptions of interactive dialogue with children. The AMALGAM version of the POW tagger does recognise punctuation, however, usually using the punctuation item itself as the annotation symbol. The POW grammar is heavily weighted to describing the functional role of words. There are some notes which offer further explanation of some of the functional tags.

Further information on the POW corpus can be found at the International Computer Archive of Modern English (ICAME) corpus collection.

Further reading:

Souter, C. 1989. A Short Handbook to the Polytechnic of Wales Corpus. ICAME, Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities, Bergen University, Norway.

Tag

Description

Examples

&

linker

and and-so and-then but but-then either else nor only or otherwise so so-then then then-again tho

&N

linker, negated

nor

A

adjunct, experiential

a-bit after again all all-of-a-sudden almost already altogether always any-how any-more any-rate any-way anymore anyway at-all at-first at-least before bit different either exactly first first-of-all ...

AD

adjunct, discourse organisational

anyway first first-of-all right see

AF

adjunct, feedback seeking

alright like look mind ok-ok okay please right see see-here well y'see you-know you-see you-you-know

AI

adjunct, inferential

always even jus' just just-about only perhaps really still though

AL

adjunct, logical

Den actually and-all anyway as-well at-least cause either even ever for-that-matter in-fact instead look mind of-course only or-else perhaps reallly really so still then though too whatever yet

AM

adjunct, modal

course maybe of-course perhaps probably rather say

AML

adjunct, metalingual

I-mean pay say way

AN

adjunct, negated

neither never

AP

adjunct, politeness

please

ATG

adjunct, tag

in-it is-it isn't-it

AWH

adjunct, WH-word

how when why

AX

adverbial or adjectival apex head of a quantity quality group

American Bach French German Spanish Welsh 'bout 'er 'ere 'here a a-bit a-lot able about abroad across afraid after afterwards again ago all all-right all-together alone along alright always amusing an ...

AXT

adverbial or adjectival apex head of a quantity quality group, comparative or superlative

'igher a-bit best better bigger biggest brainiest closer easier easiest foggiest funniest harder hardest higher highest last later longer more most nearest nicer older quicker safer smaller stronger very

AXWH

adverbial or adjectival apex head of a quantity quality group, WH-word

how how-many when where why

B

conjunction, subordinating

'cause 'cos 'fore after as as-if as-long-as as-soon-as b'cos because-of before before-that by by-the-time cause cos cos-if everytime for how if in-case instead-of like now-that of only-when ... [See note 1]

BM

conjunction, subordinating, main verb completing

of [See note 1]

BN

conjunction, subordinating, negated

if [See note 1]

CM

complement, main verb completing

abroad across better got-to in on out place up

CP

complement, predicative

able

CWH

complement, WH-word

how-many that

DD

determiner, deictic

a an another any at dis em he her here his its man me my our out that the their them there these they this those three which you your yours

DDWH

determiner, deictic, WH-word

that wha'-the-heck what whatever which whose

DO

determiner, ordinative

fifth first last second sixth the-first

DP

determiner, partitive

a-bit much my their them you

DQ

determiner, quantifying

a a-bit a-few a-lot al all an another any both different each eight either enough every fifteen fifty five forty four fourteen full half how-many how-much hundred loads lot lots many millions more ...

DQN

determiner, quantifying, negated

no none

DQWH

determiner, quantifying, WH-word

how-many how-much

EX

exclamation

God Mousetrap aw-mammy blast blinking-'eck cor crash crumbs damn drat duw fancy fantastic good goodey gosh great heck hell here hey hurrah look mammy oh-boy oh-dear same say thank-god there werhay whoops you ...

F

formulaic expression

alright ay aye bless-me come-here cor cos crumbs dear-me ello exactly excuse-me eyah flip gaga ge'-off good gosh h'-you-are ha hallo hello here here-we-are here-y'are honest-now hooray ...

FR

frame

alright come-on here look now now-then right right-now right-then say

G

genitive marker

's

H

nominal group head

Hulk Indian Indians Jack Joanne Lego Legos Mark Martians Monday P.E. Rainbow Saturday Smurf Tuesday Wednesday Zulus accident accountant adventure-books advert adverts aerial aeroplane aeroplanes ages air ...

HN

nominal group head, name-like

Bedlinog Beef Beefy Beezer Ben Bertie-Voulkes Best-Sellers Bethan Billy Billy-Beason Bingo Bionic-Woman Birmingham Black-Beauty Bleedways Blue-Peter Bo Bonnie Bridget British Brownies ...

HP

nominal group head, pronominal

I anybody anyone anything are back doctor each he her hers him his me mine myself nil nobody nothing on one one-another ones other ...

HPN

nominal group head, negated

no-one nobody none nothing

HWH

nominal group head, WH-word

that what whatever where which who whoever

I

infinitival element

to

INF

inferrer

just only

M

main verb

add added adding adjust afford agree allowed are argue argued as ask asked attached attack attacking ave baby balance balancing banged banging bash bashed bashing bath be beam bear beat beaten ...

MO

modifier

such

MOA

modifier, affective

flipping

MOC

modifier, comparative

another different else more other same

MOQ

modifier, quantifying

five four one only other ten two

MOTH

modifier, thing

bubble chinleaf choo-choo cowboy pedal plastic square table [See note 2]

N

negator

never no not

O

auxiliary, operator, verb "to do"

'd 'll 'm 're 's 've are d' did do does done had let's lets

OM

auxiliary, operator, modal

'as 'd 'e 'll 'm 'n 're 's 'ss 've ain't am are be can can't could d' did didn't do does don't done had has have haven't isn't know may might must mustn't ought put shall should was wasn't were will won't would

OMN

auxiliary, operator, modal, negated

'aven't 's ain't aren't can't couldn't didn't doesn't don't hasn't haven't isn't musn't mustn't shouldn't wasn't weren't won't wouldn't

ON

auxiliary, operator, verb "to do", negated

ain't can't couldn't d' didn't din' din'y doesn't don't-don't-don't-don't dun haven't isn't won't

OWN

possessive intensifier

own [See note 3]

OX

auxiliary, operator, "to be" or "to have"

'd 'm 're 's 've am are been did does had has have haven't is were

OXN

auxiliary, operator, "to be" or "to have", negated

'aven't 'en ain't aren't didn't doesn't don't dun hadn't hasn't haven't musn't wasn't

P

preposition

beside between by by-on down during except for from got in instead-of into like my near near-to nearer next-to of off on on-top-of onto out out-in out-of outside over past per round than ...

PM

prepositional main verb particle

about after around at down for from in into of off on onto out-of round through to up with

Q

qualifier

ago left

SIT

existential it, subject

it s

STH

existential there, subject

then there they

T

temperer

any as awful bit bout brand dead down enough even everywhere exactly half hardly how ice in jolly just more most much nearly no only out particularly plenty pretty quite rather raving really right so ... [See note 4]

TWH

temperer, WH-word

how [See note 4]

VO

selector

of [See note 5]

X

auxiliary, non-operator

've a about-to be been get gets goin'-to goin-to going going-to gon-to got got-to have have-to used used-to went

XM

auxiliary, non-operator, modal

'ave-to 've-to better gave-to go go' go'-a go-to gorra got got-to gotta has-to have have-to have... must rather used

XMN

auxiliary, non-operator, modal, negated

mustn't

XN

auxiliary, non-operator, negated

don't hadn't haven't

Notes

  1. Subordinating conjunctions are known as `binders' in the Polytechnic of Wales grammar.
  2. `Thing modifiers' are used in compound nouns.
  3. The word `own', marked as a possessive intensifier in the list above, is referred to as an `owner' in the Polytechnic of Wales grammar.
  4. A `temperer' is an adjunct that modifies an adjective or a preposition.
  5. A `selector' is a preposition that is used only with a determiner.

Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

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